Sunday, December 06, 2009

UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS DAY

S.O.S - eVoice For Justice - e-news weekly
Spreading the light of humanity & freedom

Editor: Nagaraj.M.R...vol.5.issue.50....12/12/2009

Editorial : Can we expect Justice & Rule of Law, RESPECT FOR CITIZEN’S HUMAN RIGHTS & FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS  from Corrupt Police & Judges

   In India , corruption has spread it’s tentacles to all walks of life , the corrupt public servants in their greed for money have become TRAITORS , GADDARS & backstabbing our motherland. Please go through the following articles & arrive at your conclusion.
Visit , read the petition & support by signing the petition demanding
LEGAL PROSECUTION OF SPONSORERS OF TERRORISM


Visit , read the petition & support by signing the petition demanding , COMPLIANCE OF RTI ACT , CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ,
ACCOUNTABILITY OF INDIAN JUDGES & POLICE.

http://www.thepetitionsite.com/4/accountability-of-indian-judges#signatures ,

Jai hind. Vande mataram.

Your's sincerely,
Nagaraj.m.r.

BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY 1984 -Bhopal, India

At the first instance the Government of India failed to ensure that Union carbide India Limited (U.C.I.L) has installed proper safety measures and fully implemented it in practice, at it's plant in Bhopal. The Government of Madhyapradesh through it's labour
department, factory inspectorate & pollution control board failed to enforce safety practices & environmental protection. In turn, the U.C.I.L didn't install in full, the safety measures being followed by it's parent company union carbide corporation (U.C.C) at it's
Various plants in the U.S.A. The U.C.I.L. didn't give community training to residents of nearby localities, to cope up with emergencies ie. Industrial accidents. U.C.I.L gave a go - by to safety practices, as it treated Indian lives as cheap. The government of Madhya pradesh instead of shifting slum dwellers around U.C.I.L, to other safe place, gave them legal title deeds just months before the tragedy in 1984.

Now, refer the following:-

1. After the accident at it's U.C.I.L. plant at Bhopal, India in 1984, when the U.C.C.  Chairman/C.E.O. came over to Bhopal from U.S.A to visit the accident site, local police arrested him on the charges of manslaughter. However, the Government of India got him released.


2. In 1985, Government of India enacted "Bhopal claims Act" took- away the right of appeal of all the Gas tragedy victims & declared itself as the sole representative of all victims. This said act itself is violative of victim's fundamental & human rights. The
victims didn't choose Government of India as it's representative under will, agreement, trust or pleasure.


3. The paradox of this "Bhopal claims Act" is that, Government of India which is also a party to the crime, tragedy, itself is the appellant. The appellant (Petitioner),defendant are Government of India, Prosecution by Government of India & Judged by Government of
India.


4. In 1989, when an appeal about interim compensation to be paid by the U.C.I.L to all the victims was being heard in the apex court, the supreme court of India without giving a chance to the victims to make their point, without consulting them, without making a proper assessment of damages/losses, gave an arbitrary figure as verdict & dropped all civil, criminal proceedings against U.C.C.&U.C.I.L


5. In the same year 1989, the Government of India without consulting the victims of disaster, without making proper assessment of damages/ losses, negotiated a settlement with the U.C.C. and in turn gave full legal immunity to U.C.C.& U.C.I.L from civil &
Criminal proceedings


6. Even the Government of India didn't present the case of victim's-gas tragedy victims, properly before the U.S.courts, where the U.C.C is based. All these premeditated acts only benefited the criminals- U.C.C&UCIL. Are not the supreme court of India & Government of India, here to safeguard Indians and to safeguard Justice?

After all these crimes, the Government of India failed to distribute compensation in time to victims. It has failed even to provide safe drinking water to the residents near the accident site, It has failed to provide comprehensive medical care to the victims, till
date . It has even failed to get the accident site cleared off toxic wastes either by the culprit management or by it self, that too after 20 years. The very presence of these toxic wastes since 20 years is further contaminating, polluting the environment and taking toll of more victims.

Particularly in the case of "Bhopal Gas Tragedy" the supreme court of India & Government of India are deadlier criminals than U.C.I.L&U.C.C.

Just consider a case here, Just a few years back an U.S.based M.N.C ENRON set-up a power project in Maharashtra, India through it's subsidiary. When Maharashtra state Electricity Board failed to lift power from Enron& pay them monthly guaranteed revenue, Enron threatened to invoke, open the "Eschrew Clause" with the Government
of India & to approach international arbiter U.K. Government of India has stood as conter-guarantee in this case. Finally the Government paid, of course subsequently the parent ENRON collapsed due to other reasons. If in this case if Government of India failed to pay-up as a counter guarantee & refused to comply with the award of International arbiter, definitely Government of U.S.A. would have stepped into the scene to protect it's MNC. Hypothetically, In the same vein if Enron has caused damages to Indians either through negligence of safe practices or industrial accidents or bank frauds
amounting over and above it's Capital base & insurance cover, then it would have been the duty of parent Enron & Government of U.S.A. to step in & pay-up.



In the same way, the U.C.I.L has caused massive damages to Indians & refusing to pay commensurate to damages. Dow chemicals which took- over U.C.C. is also refusing to pay. DOW chemicals which is the new owner of U.C.C. naturally inherits both profits, credits lent & liabilities to pay of U.C.C. Still it is refusing to pay. Now it is the turn of Government of U.S.A. to cough-up the sum.

Nowadays, it has become routine for central & State ministers to go- on foreign jaunts, to globe -trott inviting F.D.I/ M.N.Cs to India. They do sign numerous agreements, only favouring MNC. When tragedies occur or when they cheat Indian banks/ investors, it is Indians who suffer. The ministers & bureaucrats thinks themselves as wizards and enters into agreements with MNCs, industrialists in a hush-hush manner, with vast scope for possible corruption. Is it not the duty of government to be transparent ?


An appeal to honourable supreme court of USA & HE Honourable president of USA  Mr.Obama

Your government protects all Americans, all American companies both inside America & abroad. If an American tourist is murdered in a third country , American investigators fly over to that country  to conduct investigation in total disregard to local laws. In the same way , if the interests of an American company is threatened in a third country American government goes to it's rescue.

However , when an American company butchers , causes mass man slaughter in a third country , as an American company did in Bhopal India , no action by American government. Still the said American company has not removed , cleared the accident site of poisonous debris at Bhopal India since decades and still causing mass man slaughter  , no action by American government  why ?

Some US based companies are selling soft drinks , food products , medicines , drugs in third world countries , which are causing grave health damages to the public. The quality standards of these products are fit cases of rejections by US FDA. Some US companies are selling drugs ( which are banned in the USA ) to third world countries , still us companies are exporting such dangerous medicines , foods to third countries . no action by US government , why ? is it because you think that the lives of  non Americans are cheaper than Americans ?

Hereby, I do request your kindself ,

1 . to initiate criminal prosecution against US based key management personnel responsible for Bhopal gas tragedy .

2 . to make either the respective company management or US government to pay compensation to victims of Bhopal gas tragedy  on par with American lives , as if the same tragedy happened in the USA itself.

3 . to order the management of the said company to clean up Bhopal off poisonous debris , from the accident site at their own expense.

4 . To legally prosecute US exporters &  US based companies selling products  ( which violates US FDA regulations or banned in the USA for domestic consumption ) to third countries.

More Corrupt the Police are, More unsafe are our People
- By K B GANAPATHY


It is sickening. It is nauseating. It is vulgar. It is dirty. It is a sin and above all, it is a crime beyond any ameliorating circumstances. The punishment for this crime should be a real deterrent and must not take more than a month to award. I am talking about the crime committed by the Kolar SP, K. P. Puttaswamy, IPS, who was caught red - handed while taking a bribe of Rs.10, 000 from a civil Police Constable P.P. Prakash by the Bangalore Lokayukta Police on November 27.
When the crime was committed in Kolar, how is it that the Bangalore Lokayukta took action? This is not a million dollar question. This is a million dollar shame on the honesty and integrity of our Police force itself (honourable exceptions are honourably exempted here).
I understand the reason is that the Lokayukta Police officers in Kolar are too compassionate and considerate in nabbing criminals and corrupt persons in their own turf (department). Earlier, three attempts were made to catch this cornucopia of a corrupt person called Puttaswamy, but he was alerted in time. Thus the local Lokayukta failed in its mission.

Kolar SP Puttaswamy
Constable Prakash, the victim of Puttaswamy’s greed, avarice and craving for money knew this very well. It was for this reason, he had to approach the Bangalore Lokayukta (Phone: 9845000022). Naturally this time, the Lokayukta operation was a complete success.

Complainant Mr. P. P. Prakash
Think of the depth of demand from Puttaswamy and you will know how fathomless it is. I am reminded of a Tamil film Anniyan. The Constable Prakash had already given Rs.25, 000 as bribe (which in fact is also an offence). But the greedy SP, Puttaswamy, in order to make a killing out of this Constable seeking permission for voluntary retirement from service under VRS, recommended his dismissal. This made the Constable nervous as he would lose his pension and other benefits. P. P. Prakash, the Constable, now aged 47, hailing from South Kodagu, near Ponnampet (Pullangada family) served in the Indian Army Signals for seven years and then joined the Police Department in Kolar and has served for 20 years.
Of late, he was not keeping good health and hence took “medical permission” for 13 months leave — sick leave. It appears he was supposed to submit a Doctor’s certificate from time to time during this period. He did not do so as it is not compulsory, and rarely insisted upon, he says.
However, in this case the Kolar SP K. P. Puttaswamy ordered a Departmental Enquiry (DE) against him. Realising that this enquiry would take at least 5 to 6 months to complete and as he was in a hurry to take VRS he decided to apologise for the inadvertent lapse. Subsequent to the apology submitted by him to the DE Officer, the Dy. SP, the DE was closed and the report sent to the Superintendent of Police, K.P. Puttaswamy.
See how greed for money tears away the human face of a human being. The Superintendent of Police, Puttaswamy, returning the file to the Enquiry Officer, the Dy. SP, asked him to re -examine the Departmental Enquiry.
Constable Prakash says that normally if one admits his fault, in cases such as this, no re - examination of DE is necessary.
However, Constable Prakash thought there was no use pursuing the path of law to get his VRS from an Officer like K. P. Puttaswamy and decided to talk to him. And he did. It was here he agreed to pay the demanded amount of Rs. 25,000 to this corrupt SP for two favours: (1) To withdraw the Departmental Enquiry after a warning and pardon. (2) To grant permission for the VRS.
After making this payment of Rs. 25,000, the Constable Prakash was happily waiting at his native place for VRS permission. However, after two months, to his utter shock he received a notice about his ‘Compulsory Retirement’ which tantamounted to dismissal from service.
He rushed to Kolar and met the Superintendent of Police, K.P. Puttaswamy, on 24th November when he was told: “Okay, I will see. (Aayitu Noduva)”
On further pleadings from the Constable, Puttaswamy wrote on a piece of paper just, “10,000” and spoke with his head and eyes pushing the paper towards the Constable to see the figure.
Since the Constable found the new demand too much for him to bear, he decided to retaliate. He knew there was no use complaining to the Kolar Lokayukta which could not trap this corrupt SP three times earlier on others' complaints. So Constable P. P. Prakash straight away went to Bangalore and met Roop Kumar Datta, the ADGP, a wonderful person who is known to attend to complaints promptly in confidence without any delay.
He knew, speed is the secret of success not only in love and war but also in Lokayukta operations. He immediately called another smart officer, Superintendent of Police (SP) Madhukar Shetty and lo and behold the operation was successful.
Prakash, the Constable, says that the Kolar SP had his moles in his office keeping an eye on the Lokayukta complainants and officers who may be around. In case of suspicion, information was passed on to him and the SP will not see such visitors.
Hence, this time the Bangalore Lokayukta got smart. Waiting at the SP's door to see him was a burqaclad lady Constable and a Police Sub - Inspector disguised as a Muslim with full makeup, wearing a beard hired from a clothier to dramas.
One more person was also there with bandages, dhoti and chappals who would see the SP only after his "Doddavaru" (elder) came there. Thus there was absolutely no room for suspicion for the Policemen on duty at the SP’s door. Since Prakash was already known, he was allowed in.
During the course of conversation, the Superintendent of Police K. P. Puttaswamy, alert and smart, told his supplicant Prakash “Naale Banni” [Come tomorrow] three times. Then Prakash gave the cover with the money inside, as pre - arranged by the Lokayukta. Puttaswamy instinctively stretched his hand to receive it but quickly withdrew, lifted a file, placed it on the table and asked Prakash to keep the cover below the file. The latter obliged. However, while handling the file Puttaswamy unknowingly touched the cover to push it properly under the file.
“I will call the GSA and get the file and ask him to do the needful”, said the SP who did not forget to speak aloud “Beda” (Don’t want) all the while taking care not to touch the cover or money. But to his bad luck he had already touched the cover, though unknowingly, rather accidentally.
Well, when Prakash came out, the Lokayukta walked in. Rest is “breaking news” in TV channels and headlines in newspapers.
And indeed the complainant P. P. Prakash did teach his corrupt boss a lesson which the people of our State think will be a lesson for the likes of K. P. Puttaswamy, IPS, in office. But no. Earlier, another Superintendent of Police, B. Srikantappa of Chamarajanagar too was trapped by the Lokayukta while receiving a bribe of Rs. 50,000 from a sand transporter against whom a charge sheet was filed.The sand transporter wanted Srikantappa to help him by filing a “B” report to the Court (“B” report is one where Police investigate the case and then file a report to the court saying there is no substance in the complaint or there is no prima facie case as such). The case will then be closed.
Interestingly, the same K. P. Puttaswamy was the Additional SP in Chamarajanagar at that time, when his boss B. Srikantappa was caught in the snare set by the Lokayukta. Yet, K. P. Puttaswamy, now SP at Kolar, did not learn any lesson from the past experience of his boss. Therefore, no matter how many Police officers the Lokayukta catches, it would be business as usual for these government officers including those of the IAS, IFS and IPS class.
It is said habits die hard. These two officers are from the Karnataka Administrative Service (KAS) who rose to the rank of IPS after years of service in the lower rank. It is universally known corruption at the lower level in the Police force happens on a daily basis and therefore even after the elevation to the IPS, the habit must have continued, sometimes consciously and sometimes unconsciously, as if it is a natural part of the job. Habits indeed never die.
At another level, it is not as if those who enter service directly from IPS are not corrupt. If only a honest and aggressive investigation is made into the wealth amassed and properties acquired by these officers (including the benami angle), one will find a can of sinister worms crawling all over the place. While a Police Constable may collect on a daily basis a few hundred rupees and on occasions a few thousands, these IPS officers (exceptions apart) make a killing in one deal and like the Python which after swallowing an animal lies languidly for months, these officers strut around with an aura of honesty, till the next victim comes by.
Be that as it may, the point to ponder is whether the government’s recruitment policy, specially in departments like Police, Excise and Revenue, needs to be changed to ensure the kinds of B. Srikantappa and K. P. Puttaswamy are not recruited at all or promoted. In case they are recruited they must be dismissed from service if caught red-handed and found guilty, rather than merely suspending them, only to be reinstated later or let them off with minor punishment.
Just as in cases of rape or murder, the law relating to bail in cases of corruption too needs to be changed. The present law relating to bail for these offences seem to be very liberal and lax. When a person is sent to Judicial Custody, he is in jail only for a few hours. Soon he is shifted to a hospital under legal rigmarole and manipulation. Well, why not call it 'hospital custody' instead of “Judicial custody”?
Politicians, higher officials and the rich should be discouraged by the law courts from getting this "hospital custody". Consider this: a politician is arrested for some misdemeanour or offence. He is found in the pink of health at the time of his arrest. But suddenly when he is produced before the court, he feigns illness of severe nature like chest - pain, high blood pressure or even unbearable back ache. Next, we see him being taken to a super - specialty hospital ward in the name of judicial custody instead of being treated in the prison. The same has happened in the case of K. P. Puttaswamy too.
Indian Express dated 1st December, 2009 reported: "While in Kolar jail, he (K. P. Puttaswamy) reportedly complained of chest pain and was taken to hospital. Puttaswamy was later shifted to Jalappa Hospital at midnight and admitted in the VIP ward." A mockery of law and justice. A show of solidarity by the jail authorities and the doctors!
Considering the all - pervasive corruption in the Police Department, I have a lingering suspicion that most of the missing cases, murder cases, robbery cases, rape cases etc. are not detected at all, simply for the reason of corruption. Filing false complaints or threatening to file false complaint is another ploy employed by the Police. As a journalist, a number of people have come to me to get the complaint registered or if registered to get the case investigated. A couple of years back, the body of a small time planter in Kodagu was found hanging on a tree in the premises of the Race Club and despite the complaint, nothing happened. The persons named as suspects by the victim’s mother (a widow) and relatives were not even taken into custody for interrogation.
The victim’s relatives told me that the culprits had visited the jurisdictional Police Station in the city a couple of times. You can make your own inference.
The senior officers in the Police Department must review periodically all the undetected cases and put pressure on the Station House Officers to solve the cases and for this purpose periodically guide them. However, if the top officers themselves are of the Chamarajanagar SP B. Srikantappa’s kind or the Kolar SP K. P. Puttaswamy's kind, God only should help the complainant. I am not aware if there is a psychological test for the candidates who appear for public service examinations — like the IPS, IAS, KAS — to find out the propensity of a person for making money by means fair or foul. I may sound harsh and it may even be illegal, but how about brain mapping under narcoanalysis test to find out the “mind” of the candidate? This day may not be far - off, if corruption continues unabated at this level.
Indira Gandhi was indeed right when she acknowledged corruption as a “Universal Phenomenon”, almost justifying it. No wonder she was also in a way responsible for the present run of corrupt officers in all our government departments and Constitutional institutions. We had always thought at least our Army and Judiciary are well insulated from corruption. Newspapers rarely carried any item relating to corruption in the Army and Judiciary. But today we have Army scams and Judicial corruption almost daily being written in newspapers and shown on TV. Lack of trust in the leadership in all areas of governance is worrying every citizen today. The situation indeed is grim. If a citizen cannot trust a Police Officer, Army General, Chief Justice of the higher court, where shall he go for his security and justice?
Are we as a country lost in the limbo of a democratic anarchy?
Tailpiece:
Lokayukta SP arrests Kolar SP on corruption charges. A wag asks: Is it a case of “set a thief to catch a thief?!”


AN APPEAL TO THE HONOURABLE CHIEF JUSTICE OF SUPREME  COURT OF USA  ,                                              CHIEF JUSTICE OF INDIA  &  CHIEF JUSTICE OF PAKISTAN
- By American Citizens


Our country was known as " Heaven On Earth" , "Land of Equality & Equal Oppurtunity" & the "Statue of Liberty" rightly symbolized the spirit of our country. Now USA is known as a "Terror State".


In the last 3 – 4 decades , the persons who occupied the office of President USA ,in their individual capacity took wrong , inhuman decisions , meddled in the internal affairs of other sovereign nations , spent our resources to create terrorist outfits like al-queda , Taliban in those countries.


In turn these terrorist outfits terrorized , murdered millions of innocents & this Frankenstein monster came home to roost on September 9 / 11 . After September 9 / 11 , each terror suspect is severely tortured in hell like Abu Garibh prison , elsewhere by our authorities. For argument sake let us accept
that these terrorists who murder innocents don't deserve kid glove treatment & rightly deserve 3rd degree torture. When a single terrorist deserve such inhuman 3rd degree torture , what quantum of punishment , torture – previous presidents of USA deserve – who created , aided & abetted thousands of such terrorists , terrorist outfits ?


Herby, we appeal to the honourable Supreme Court of USA to order the federal government to to make public :


1. how much US resources were spent from US TREASURY , to finance terrorist outfits , military juntas in other sovereign nations ?


2. is not Al-queda , Taliban creations of USA ?


3. did September 9 / 11 WTC attack truly happened by hijacked airplane or was it planned by US authorities ? see
http://www.neiu.edu/~ayjamess/hmmm.htm#Main


4 . is racial profiling , profiling a particular community & suspecting all the muslims as terror suspects , right?


5. if it is right , the cretors of such terrorist outfits – past presidents of USA – who were Christians makes it logical to assume whole of our Christian community as terror suspect ?


6. is not use of 3rd degree torture on all type of suspects in US prisons & in the prisons of US allied countries at the behest of US authorities , right ? is it not violation of human rights & US laws ?


7. did US find any weapons of mass destruction in Iraq , which was the main reason for US attacking Iraq ?


8. why not US authorities use scientific interrogation techniques like polygraph , lie detector tests instead of inhuman 3rd degree torture on terror suspects & suspects in other criminal cases ?


9 . what legal right our President of USA have , to illegally spend billions of our dollars on inhuman , llegal acts of terrorism , military coup , creation , aiding & abetting of terrorists , etc , in other sovereign nations ? while we are suffering from loss of jobs ,loss of home due to natural calamities , etc ?


Crux , Foundation of all religions is humanity , kindness & universal brotherhood. It is the preachers who misrepresent it. Terrorism created , aided , abetted by anybody is inhuman & wrong . Terrorism is creation of power hungry , selfish people & they must be legally punished .


Hereby , we appeal to the honorable supreme court of USA to legally prosecute Previous PRESIDENTS OF USA in the last 4 decades , for crimes of terror , as per the present US anti-terror laws.



Recently , in the issue of weekly publication  "The Week" , cabinet minister of government of srilanka (previously a deadly terrorist & right hand man of LTTE chief Prabhakaran ) Mr. Karuna , Himself has stated in an interview that LTTE received arms training in Tamilnadu State of India , to wage war against Government of Srilanka. The Justice Jain Commission Of Enquiry , which probed late PM Rajiv Gandhi's assassination case , also stated that Tamil Terrorist outfits in Srilanka Received monetary , financial , arms training support from government of India. GOI has even setup a radio station for tamil terrorists of srilanka , within Indian territory. GOI spent billions of dollars of Indian taxpayer's money for aiding & abetting terrorism , while billions of Indians were half starving & going without a single meal , without proper health care.



Recently  , in a media interview the president of Government of Pakistan Mr. Jardari himself has confessed that in the previous years the government of Pakistan has aided & abetted Terrorism for tactical gains of Pakistan , spending billions of dollars of Pakistani taxpayer's money. While ordinary  Pakistanis were suffering from starvation , lack of health care , etc.



All the above proves that Previous Presidents of Government of USA , previous Presidents of Government of Pakistan & Previous Prime Ministers of Government of India were the real master minds of TERRORISM , founded , aided , abetted TERRORISM FOR THEIR OWN SELFISH GAINS. In turn  Murdering  lakhs of innocent human beings. These guilty previous presidents & prime ministers are deadly than OSAMA BIN LADEN.



Hereby , we appeal to the Honorable Chief Justices of supreme courts of USA , INDIA , PAKISTAN  , BANGLADESH , SRILANKA & INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL , to legally prosecute the previous Prime Ministers of INDIA , the previous presidents of USA & PAKISTAN , on charges of master minding TERRORISM & murdering innocent people in their respective countries .


UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."
PREAMBLE
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
Article 11.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
Article 12.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 13.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Article 14.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 15.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
Article 16.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
Article 17.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Article 19.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
Article 21.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Article 22.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
Article 26.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
Article 27.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Article 28.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Article 29.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 30.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.


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